Doors and windows
Doors and windows in metalwork
According to the French Building Federation and the rules and standards of metalworks, here is a description of the requirements that doors and windows must meet in general.
- Doors are constructive elements intended to close an opening in a partition and which allow or block access or passage of the latter.
- A window is a building element intended to close or open an opening in a partition to allow the passage of light or for ventilation.
- A French window can also be used as an opening in a wall and simultaneously for ventilation and the passage of light in the premises.
Requirements and Standards for Doors and Windows
The requirements change depending on where they are installed, indoors, outdoors, for apartment buildings, for establishments open to the public, for workplaces
For example, the exterior doors and windows of a building must be watertight and airtight.
The doors of the collective areas must allow access and evacuation in case of fire….
1. Applicable standards
The standard for doors and windows is EN 14351-1.
This is a harmonized standard relating to the manufacture and placing on the market of windows and exterior doors.
Design and performance requirements
The EN 14351-1 standard concerns the performance of the product placed on the market.
These new requirements are in addition to the old French standards, certain requirements of which will remain in application simultaneously with standard EN 14351-1.
This does not apply to doors, gates, garage doors, or automatic doors.
2. The sizes of windows, doors, and patio doors result from their applications such as accessibility to people, fire evacuation or others.
The rules change depending on the building.
The minimum width of an entrance door is different depending on the place of installation.
This concerns the doors of the accommodation as well as the doors of the common areas, toilets, cabins, vaults, cellars and others. Their designs should be able to withstand the combined effect of the maximum overload of a building corresponding to its type of use and its extreme climatic load (see CCH R.111-11 and CT.R.4214-1);
En revanche, le verre doit résister à l'impact habituel (Veuillez-vous référer à l'article R.111-11 du CCH).
3. Fire regulations
Fire protection rules may be different depending on the type of building.
Always apply the most restrictive rule for each type of building.
These characteristics relate to structural resistance according to standard NF EN 14351-1
Joinery must be designed to withstand the maximum loads and overloads of buildings depending on the type of use.
Climatic loads: Art. R.111-11 of the CCH, Art. R.4214-1 of the CT
The glazing must resist shocks: Art. R.111-11 of the CHC
All joinery must have mechanical resistance to repeated opening and closing,
Impact resistance, resistance to wind, snow load and permanent building loads.
5. Thermal performance
In the case of windows and patio doors, the main characteristics to be evaluated according to the XP P50-777 standard are: the thermal coefficient Uw, the solar factor Sw, light transmission of the panes TL.
The standard EN 14351-1 refers to the standards of test or calculation methods which make it possible to determine the thermal transmission coefficient of the window (Uw) or the door (Ud).
6. Acoustic performance
The acoustic regulations for buildings in general as well as European regulations, according to EU Regulation No. 305/2011, take into account the acoustic performance of windows and exterior doors for CE marking.
7. Air-Water-Wind performance
The EN 14351-1 standard makes it possible to assess water tightness and wind performance
8. Protection against falls and personal injuries.
To consult Art. R.111-15 of the CCH and the NF P 01 012 standard for the need to install a guardrail to limit falls.
9. Corrosion protection
Refer to DTU 36.5 P1-1 for the installation of exterior doors and windows and
The NF P 24351 standard for the corrosion protection of metal surfaces.
10. Fire resistance
Metalworkers are not responsible for active protection.
They are responsible only in the area of fire resistance.
See the decree which defines a classification of fire resistance of construction products.
See as well:
The realization of works by Métallerie Feu
11. Performance and Quality according to EN 14351-1
Depending on the manufacturer, there are different qualifications, labels, ACOTHERM, CEKAL certification, NF certification Profiles, Canvases, Closures, Garage doors, CE marking,
The NF certification certifies that the product corresponds to national product standards, to the performance of product components and to the performance of an approved body.
The NF marking attests to a monitoring of the manufacturing as well as the quality and performance of the product.